Description of Parts of a Human Skeleton from Pleistocene (Paleolithic) Bed, Tilbury, Essex

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                                fang: the worn surface of the crown, fig. 5.<u>a<\u>, is flat and polished, very feebly hollowed & 
becoming convex at the back border. The fang is solidified as in the other two teeth.
In size these teeth, or what is left of them, equals the corresponding parts of the same teeth 
in the West-coast Negro and in the Australian; it exceeds that of the modern European 
figured in Plate 119, fig. 3, of my ‘Odontography ‘.
The condyle and tip of the coronoid process are broken off the present portion of 
mandible. The ‘angle ‘ is rounded off as in the edentulous jaws of aged individuals 
and the ‘ascending ramus ‘ has lost its ‘middle <s>aged <\s> period ‘ verticality. The dimensions of 
the bone are given in fig. 2, Plates I & II. The ridge on the inner surface 
beneath the molar tract is well marked. The ‘symphysis ‘ would not project 
beyond the incisor-sockets were these entire. The prominences at the back part 
and the ‘digastricus ‘ muscles are in distinct pairs & well developed: the first pair 
are vertically extended with the interval scooped out as it were: the subjacent 
pair of genio-hyoidean processes, of equal extent, are narrower and closer together.
From the more obtuse ‘digastric ‘ rising extends a broad and shallow fossa for 
increase of origin: the prominence supports a pair of vertical ridges, smaller & more apart 
than the pair above. Behind the alveolar tract the rising part of the mandible,
to which some anthropotomists restrict the term ‘ramus’ as contradistinguished from 
the ‘horizontal’ portion, or ‘body’, of the mandible, shows by the degree of obliquity 
of its axis to that of the ‘body’ the senile character of the bone. On its inner surface 
the notch in the margin of the ‘mandibular canal’, Pl. II fig. 2, usually leading 
to a groove extending obliquely downward and forward, here leads to a second 
canal, ib. q, of 10 millims extent, emerging from which the mylohyoidean 
nerve and vessel again have impressed a groove which is lost, as usual, in 
the submandibular fossa. The wide & smooth depression for the sublingual 
gland is feebly marked. The ‘mylo-hyoidean’ ridge is strongly developed. Below 
the incisors the origin of the ‘levator menti’ muscle is neatly defined by a 
narrow ridge.
Par) In the cranial part of the skull of ye palaeolithic individual under review 
the strong muscular characters contrast with the low cerebral ones: the 
same indications of brute force are repeated in the jaw.
Par) Of the 
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Manuscript details

Richard Owen
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Cite as

Description of Parts of a Human Skeleton from Pleistocene (Paleolithic) Bed, Tilbury, Essex, 1883. From The Royal Society, AP/62/6



Anthony Lynch


The skeleton has been dated by radiocarbon to the late Mesolithic
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