Description of Parts of a Human Skeleton from Pleistocene (Paleolithic) Bed, Tilbury, Essex

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or ‘calvarium ‘ only. This indicates a somewhat larger cerebrum than in the 
Tilbury-man, but the frontal sinuses are more prominent in the cave specimen. These are, however,
strictly Human characters, are not developed in <u>Quadrumana<\u>. In the highest 
of this order the frontal prominence  - extreme in the Gorilla - is formed by the confluent super-
orbital ridges. 7/
With the portions of cranium was fortunately rescued the lower jaw (Plates I & II, fig. 2); so much at 
least as is represented by the left ramus & a portion of the right therewith coalesced 
at the ‘symphysis mandibulae’. This bone indicated the individual to have reached 
that term of life which the loss of masticating teeth tells to have drawn near it’s
close. Not only were the three true molars (<u>m<\u> 1, 2, 3) wanting, but their sockets 
had been absorbed, and the tract of jaw they had occupied was reduced to the dimi-
nished vertical diameter characteristic of old age. More or less of the sockets of the 
two premolars (p3, p4), the canine (<u>c<\u>) and the incisors (<u>i <\u> 1 & 2) of the left ramus 
remained, indicating that such teeth had not been shed. The broken margins of 
the sockets showed that they had been knocked out by the excavator. It is characteris-
tic of the pains taken to find whatever parts of the Tilbury skeleton had not been dis-
persed, that three of the detached teeth were recovered (Plates I & II figs. 3, 4, 5).
Each tooth showed the extra work in mastication to which they had been put,
after the loss, during life, of the true grinders.
Of the incisor one third of the crown had been ground down flat and polished 
(ib. fig. 3, <u>a<\u>); this with the front (fig. ) and side (fig. ) views of the tooth give 
its dimensions. In fig.  , is shown a small circular cavity at the base of the 
enamel, which I interpret as commencing decay. The fang contracts to an obtuse 
end which is closed.
Par) The canine (ib. figs. 4, <u>a<\u>) shows the loss of a greater proportion of the crown 
which has been worn down to a polished, slightly concave, flattened surface. The 
fang is similarly terminated and is closed by the ossified remnant of pulp & capsule.
On the outer side of the crown a cavity has invaded the base of the enamel, in size and 
shape as in the incisor. I cannot refer these small hollows to any post-mortem actions (Pl. II, figs. 1-5, <u>a<\u>).
Par.) The crown of the premolar, fig. 5, <u>a<\u> shows still greater wear: little of it is left above the 
7/ ‘Memoir on the Gorilla ‘ (4to, 1865, Plates XI & XIII.
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Richard Owen
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Description of Parts of a Human Skeleton from Pleistocene (Paleolithic) Bed, Tilbury, Essex, 1883. From The Royal Society, AP/62/6



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