Description of Parts of a Human Skeleton from Pleistocene (Paleolithic) Bed, Tilbury, Essex

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                                Par) Of the vertebral column the sole trace is a fragment of the sacrum 
associated with portions of the pelvis. Notes on the rest of the skeleton will 
be limited to indications of the force & habit of life of the individual.
Par) along the middle third of the shaft of the humerus the ridge continued from the 
ectotuberosity subsides: a ridge separating the outer (radial) from the hinder (anconal)
surface begins to rise about the lower third of the shaft and is continued with 
augmenting extent and sharpness to the ectepicondyle (‘external condyle ‘ of Anthropo-
tomy). The ‘internal ‘ (ulnar) side or surface of the shaft begins to be marked by a 
narrow ridge where the medullary artery enters the downward (distally) directed canal.
This ridge gradually expands into a smooth convex border as it approaches the entepi-
condyle 1/. The olecranal and coronoid depressions are separated by a strong plate of 
bone: the former is wide and deep: a small plate of bone rises from the bottom.
Par) The usual indications of muscular development and power are presented by 
the preserved portions of the fore-arm bones. The ridges on the second metacarpal 
of the left hand, for attachment of the interosseous muscles are strongly marked. In the 
first, or proximal, phalanx, of the same (index) finger the lateral ridges, bounding 
the palmar surface traversed by the flexor tendon, are unusually strong.
Par) The above bones of the upper limb leave an impression of the frequency and 
force with which it has been exercised.
The shaft of the left femur (Plate IV) shows a strongly developed obtuse ‘lesser trochan-
ter’, <u>a<\u>; below which is a rough oblique prominence, <u>b<\u>, which gave insertion to the ‘iliacus 
internus’ muscle. But the most remarkable character is shown by the tract, <u>c<\u>, <u>c’<\u>,
which gave insertional attachment to the ‘gluteus maximus’ muscle. The upper portion 
of what, in modern femora, is noted as <s>the <\s> a ‘“beginning, at the base of the great 
trochanter of the ‘rough line’”, here merits by its prominence the name of ‘third 
trochanter’, <u>c<\u>, answering to the still more developed process so called in most 
perissodactyle quadrupeds. From this process <s>(Pl. fig. )<\s> a ridge, <u>c’<\u>,
[remaining text on page obscured]
…thropotomy the term ‘condyle ‘, rightly applied to the prominent articular convexities of the occi-
… mandibular, and femoral bones, is transferred from the distal articular surfaces of the humerus 
… prominences for attachment of muscles above them. I have found the convenience in ‘Compa-
… Osteology’ of indicating the homologues of the ‘external condyle’ and ‘internal condyle’ of the human humerus 
                            
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Manuscript details

Author
Richard Owen
Reference
AP/62/6
Series
AP
Date
1883
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Description of Parts of a Human Skeleton from Pleistocene (Paleolithic) Bed, Tilbury, Essex, 1883. From The Royal Society, AP/62/6

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