Description of Parts of a Human Skeleton from Pleistocene (Paleolithic) Bed, Tilbury, Essex

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                                bone, behind the orbits is 3 1/2 inches ( 80 millims). The length of the frontal from the sagittal 
suture to the nasal bones, following the outer curve, is 5 inches (126 millims). There are no par- 
tial prominences answering to those specified as the ‘frontal eminences ‘ in 
modern European skulls. The greatest breadth of the frontal, at the outer ends of 
the ‘coronal suture ‘, is 4 1/4 inches (115 millims). A well-marked ‘temporal ridge ‘, <u>e<\u>,
extends from the ‘external angular process ‘, <u>f<\u>, to the parietal, <u>b<\u>. On the inner surface 
of the frontal the ‘sulcus longitudinalis ‘ is feebly and irregularly indicated, save 
where the ‘inner table ‘ begins to project before being continued into a strongly de-
veloped ‘frontal crest ‘, which terminates at its forward subsidence in a small 
‘foramen caecum‘. The eminences and depressions of the ‘inner table ‘ <s>indicative <\s> due to 
<s>of<\s> cerebral convolutions are few & feebly indicated.
The Upper portions of the parietals are confluent along the sagittal suture, Plate III, which 
is, nevertheless, indicated on the outer surface: these bones, <u>b<\u>, indicate by the transverse 
curve a narrow cranium. The parietal foramen is present leading to the 
superior longitudinal sinus, at the hinder part of which are well-defined ‘pacchio-
nian depressions’. Parts of the bone show a thickness of 10 millims.
The portion of occipital bone (Plate II, fig. 6) includes much of the right half of the lambdoidal 
suture, with a strip of the deconnected parietal. The ‘crista occipitalis ‘, <u>r<\u>, with both 
the ‘superior’, <u>s<\u>, and ‘inferior <u>t<\u> curved lines ‘ or rather ridges, with their intervening spaces for 
‘complexi ‘ and ‘recti’ capitis postici ‘ muscles, are strongly marked; as is the 
bifurcation of the ‘inferior curved line ‘ denoting the space for the ‘obliquus 
superior muscle ‘ and the ‘rectus capitis posticus major ‘. On the inner surface of 
the present cranial bone the ‘fossae ‘ for the hind lobe of the cerebrum and that 
for the cerebellum are well-marked: but there is no depression answering to that 
noted as the ‘torcular Herophili ‘ in modern European skulls which have been 
the subjects of received anthropotomical descriptions.
Par. The contraction and slope of the forehead and the prominence of the frontal 
sinuses are matched by Australian skulls: but I have not found in these so 
definite a channel between the prominences. The depression between the frontal 
and nasal bones is nearly the same; but the nasals are narrower in the Australian 
These bones are anckylosed together in the position preserved in the present skull.
Par. The notable specimen from the ‘Neanderthal ‘ consists of the skull-cap
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Manuscript details

Richard Owen
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Description of Parts of a Human Skeleton from Pleistocene (Paleolithic) Bed, Tilbury, Essex, 1883. From The Royal Society, AP/62/6



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