On Motion in the lumbar division of the spine of birds, by George Oakley Fleming

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                                the swift, the anterior process for the attachment of the 
anterior muscle of the neck, is continued across the lum-
bar articulations to the upper part of the pelvis. 
In the lateral motion of the dorsal and lumbar 
portions of the spine of birds, some provision became 
necessary to protect that portion of the spinal marrow 
from injurious pressure, and we find that is 
accomplished by a contrivance as simple and as 
effectual, and in some instances similar, as that for 
the same purpose in the neck; for this object is not 
always effected by the same means as in the cervi-
cal vertebrae of birds, as described by the late Mr Earle 
Here also, in one case, pressure is prevented in ben-
ding the vertebral column laterally, by enlarging the 
lateral diameter of the canal, at the upper and lower 
part of each vertebrae, while at the middle it remains 
of the usual size, so that the shape of the cavity re-
sembles that of an hour-glass. - In others, there is 
a large lateral notch in the sides as in Plate 2, letters b and at the top 
and bottom of each vertebra forming an opening by the 
union, and thus affording space for the same purpose. 
And again, it may be observed, that a vertebral canal, 
at the top and bottom of each moveable vertebra, is of 
an 
                            
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Manuscript details

Author
George Oakley Fleming
Reference
AP/28/6
Series
AP
Date
1846
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On Motion in the lumbar division of the spine of birds, by George Oakley Fleming , 1846. From The Royal Society, AP/28/6

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